Cytokines and chemokines are engaged in the protection of an organism against external aggressors and diseases. They work together regulating and determining the nature of immune responses and controlling the immune cell trafficking and the cellular arrangement of immune organs. An imbalance or dysregulation in cytokines or chemokines contributes to various diseases where the immune system is involved. The use of cytokines or antibodies against cytokines and their receptors can be an effective therapy for autoimmune disease and some cancers. Here, novel therapies to advanced malignancies using immunotherapies will be reported. This includes the off-label use of a monoclonal antibody against interleukin-6 receptor to treat patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome by COVID-19 infection
Full paper ref: Landolfi C. Latest update on cytokines and their subset chemokines. Arch Clin Toxicol. 2020; 2(1): 10-12.
Picture: N Engl J Med 1998; 338:436-445